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The geography, the location where an ancient civilization made its home, had an enormous impact on their culture and daily life. Learn how people who lived long ago adapted to swamps, mountains, deserts, and other geographic locations. Some of their solutions were very strange!

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Ancient Mesopotamia Geography - This land between two rivers was filled with wildlife and edible vegetation making it an attractive area for early man to move in to. Once they figured out how to grow crops there, civilization soon followed.

Ancient Egypt Geography - Ancient Egypt had many natural barriers. There were mountains to the south, and deserts to east and west. If it had not been for the Nile River, Egypt might have developed a very different civilization.

Ancient Greece Geography - The Greek city-states were located in southern Europe, grouped together on a large peninsula that juts into the Mediterranean Sea. The center part of the peninsula composed of mountains. The ancient Greeks enjoyed many natural harbors, and lots of seafood to eat, but planting crops - that took work! But the Greeks were very clever.

Ancient Rome Geography - Ancient Rome began in the Seven Hills, on a peninsula, shaped like a boot, a peninsula that jutted out into the Mediterranean Sea. Rome also had mountains, but it also had large plains that made growing food much easier than it was in ancient Greece.

Rome did not spring into being as a power on the Italian peninsula. It began as a tiny village along the Tiber River. It was an excellent location. The soil was good so crops could be grown easily. It was surrounded by 7 hills, offering a natural defensive barrier. And of course, it was on a river, the Tiber River, giving these early settlers water for drinking and bathing as well as an easy way to trade. With all these advantages, it's no surprise that Rome grew quickly.

Ancient China Geography - The early Chinese people knew there were other tribes of people to the north. But they did not know there were other ancient civilizations in other parts of the world. The Chinese were isolated by their many natural barriers. The advantage was that the ancient Chinese were able to develop a unique civilization. The disadvantage is that they had to invent anything they needed without borrowing ideas from other civilizations. They did a really good job! The ancient Chinese probably invented more inventions than any other ancient civilization.

Ancient India Geography - India is a land of many varied geographical formations. It has mountains and deserts. It has some of the world's greatest rivers. It has fruitful plains and rainforests. In short, India has almost every type of geography you can think of.

Ancient Aztecs Geography - The Aztecs settled down in the Valley of Mexico. They adapted to their environment. They built their beautiful capital city on a swamp, thanks to the skills of their engineers. They built canoes so they could hunt and fish. They created medicines from the many plants they found in the area. They created floating gardens for more places to grow food. They built dikes to hold back water in the swampy areas, to free up land for agriculture and building.

Ancient Mayas Geography - The Maya lived in Central America. The area included volcanic mountains, scattered swamps, and dense forests. Their home was in the rainforest, in an area that now includes the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Guatemala, and some of southern Mexico. The climate varied from very hot to very wet. The clever Mayas built huge cities, a vast network of roadways, and planted crops like chilies and cotton.

Ancient Incas Geography - The Inca Empire made their home about 11,000 feet above sea level, high in the Andes Mountains. Their civilization grew rapidly and spread out in a long strip that reached pretty much north to south along the western side of South America. The geography was rugged, composed of the Andes mountains, the coastline deserts, and the Amazon jungle. The clever Inca found solutions for their geographic problems.

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